• Provided that operating, transportation and storage regulations are observed the company guarantees:
  • Advices, which will, no doubt, be useful for drivers and help to extend tyre performance life.
  • Tyre marking
  • By their construction tyres can be bias and radial
  • TYRE is rubber or steel (on carts) ring, case on wheel rim. Automobile tyre is an elastic case which contacts the road and cushions impacts and absorbs road bumping.

Tyre classification

шина

TYRE is rubber or steel (on carts) ring-shaped covering around a wheel rim. Automobile tyre is an elastic case which contacts the road and partially cushions impacts and absorbs road bumping.

Diagram of a tyre in cross-section: 1 - beads, 2 - bead wire, 3 - carcass, 4 - breaker, 5 - side wall, 6 - tread.

Types of tyres:

  • by  construction - solid, elastic, pneumatic and run-flat tyre (the latest achievements in tyre designing)
  • by tube type - tube tyres, tubeless and tyres for racing bicycle
  • by cord type - with steel carcass and nylon (capron) cord
  • by cord location - bias ply, bias belted and radial («R» type)
  • by section - arched, low profile, standard profile (toroidal) and wide-section
  • by pressure - ultra low (pneumatic), low, average, high (aerostatics) and adjustable pressure
  • by season of use - summer, winter (studded and non-studded tyres) and all-season
  • by tread type - all-purpose, road, cross-country, rain tyres, pseudo-slick (slick), mixed (2) and «» type tyres
  • lately so called "intelligent" tyres and tyres with ring container have appeared.

Solid tyre is a tyre made of solid rubber. It was used for first cars. Now it is used only for oversized industrial and household equipment as well as for child bicycles. Solid rubber tyre has air cavities which make it lighter. It is puncture-safe and is used for sports cars.

Pneumatic tyre is a tyre the flexibility of which is provided by compressed air in the airtight cavity.

Run-flat tyre is a tyre which is puncture-safe and provides driving in a deflated condition. Currently, design of these tyres is developed in two ways:

  1. pneumatic tyre construction which provides to keep safe driving with a flat tyre for the distance of 100 km;
  2. completely new (non-pneumatic) construction

Tube tyre is a pneumatic tyre which has a case and tube; tube  truck tyre consists of a case, a tube and  a flap as well. Such tyres are marked as "tube type":

     1. special rubberized fabric with reinforced warp made of twisted cotton, rayon and capron yarns or steel wire, which forms a tyre body;

     2. twisted strong thread used for manufacturing of cases for passenger car tyres. 

Bias tyre is a pneumatic tyre in which the  ply cords in carcass and belt are laid as alternate angle of 30° - 40° to the centre line of the tyre tread. Cord threads are crossed, balanced design of tyre cross section is formed.

Bias belted  tyre is a bias tyre in which  cord threads  in belt are laid at angle of more than 60° to the  centre line of the tyre tread.

опоясанная диагональная шинаRadial tyre is a pneumatic tyre in which cords are laid radially, this tyre has high flexibility and loading; it is designated as "R" tyre. 

Tyre section is a cross section of a vehicle tyre .

Tyre section height is a value equal to half difference between tyre diameter and nominal rim diameter.

Tyre section width means the linear distance between the outsides of the sidewalls of an inflated tyre excluding elevations due to marking.

Tread width is identified by the first figure of tyre marking; it identifies the width of the part of tyre tread that comes into contact with a road.

Tyre series is identified by the second figure of the tyre marking; it identifies a group of tyres which have the same aspect ratio (H/B) expressed as percentage; for example: 70 series  - section height is 70 % of section width. If width is 175 mm, than, consequently, the height is122.5 mm. In some tyre sizes the series number is not indicated, for example, 185 R14 C 102 Q. Such tyres are called full-profile tyres, and aspect ratio in this case is 80 % and more.

Marking of tyre size  is an  alphanumeric system for tyre designation, for example, 175/70 R13 82 T  on a tyre sidewall means the following: 175 - run tread width; 70 - tyre series; R - radial; 13 - rim diameter in inches; 82 - load index or load rating; Т - speed index. In some tyre sizes there are additional letter symbols: 185 R14 C 102 Q, index С means that tyre is «reinforced»  and has big load rating. Sometimes other identification markings are used, but not often. Together with tyre size, a manufacturer’s name must be indicated on the side wall, for example WQ-102 ROSAVA. Seasonality can be specified as well. If seasonality is not indicated, this tyre is designed to be used only in summer conditions.

Arched tyre is a tyre with large lugs; such tyre has an arch cross section with the aspect ratio of 0,4-0,5. 

Low profile tyre is a pneumatic tyre which has the aspect ratio of 0,7-0,9. It is normally used in passenger cars.

Normal section tyre is a pneumatic tyre which has the aspect ratio of 0,9-1,0. The pressure usually is not adjustable. It is used for road vehicles.

Tyre with a ring container is a pneumatic tyre with a container containing compound for sealing a hole.When a tube is punctured and pressure decreases, this compound not only seals a hole, but regains the pressure in it by vaporization.

Tyre with nylon (capron) cord is a pneumatic tyre in which cord is made of nylon (capron). Such tyre is one-third lighter,  resistant to lateral impacts and, when worn, has no "hair" that can puncture a tube. For example, Я-370.

 Steel carcass tyre is a radial tyre in which cord is made of metal threads.

шина низкого давления

 Low-pressure tyre is a pneumatic tyre with inflation pressure about 0,1-0,4.

 Middle-pressure tyre is a pneumatic tyre with inflation pressure about 0,4-0,6 Мpа.

Extra-low pressure  tyre is a pneumatic tyre with inflation pressure about 0,05-0,08 Мpа.

 High-pressure tyre is a pneumatic tyre with inflation  pressure about 0,6-0,7 Мpа and higher.

Adjustable  inflation pressure tyre  is a pneumatic tyre in which pressure can be adjusted according to running conditions.

 «RС» tyre  is a tyre with demountable tread, usually in the form of rings.

 Летняя шинаSummer tyre is a pneumatic tyre with summer tread pattern designed to be used on dry or wet hard surface.

Winter tyre is a pneumatic tyre with winter tread pattern specially designed for snow, wet, mud and loose road surfaces. It is marked M+S, winter.

All-season tyre is a pneumatic tyre with tread pattern designed to be used both in winter and in summer. It is marked as all-season, AS.

Универсальная шина

All-purpose tyre is a pneumatic tyre with all-purpose tread pattern designed to be used on natural soil roads and  roads with improved surface.

Road tyre is a pneumatic tyre with road tread pattern designed to ensure good gripping with road surface at high speed.

Cross-country tyre is a pneumatic tyre with  cross-country tread pattern designed to ensure running on wet black earth, wet meadow and snow field.

Rain tyre is a pneumatic tyre that eliminates aquaplaning,  especially in heavy rain. Tread pattern is designed to ensure drainage of water from the contact patch of a tyre with the road as well as to provide air-free traction of a tyre with a road through lamellas.  For the first time such  tyres appeared in 1956. They are marked "aqua, rain, water".

Mixed

  1. Different surface under right and left wheels (for instance: ice-asphalt)
  2. Rubber for different use in racing. For example, dry and wet asphalt.

Intelligent tyre is a tyre that is capable of reporting its status to the driver by means of displaying the data from sensors, the same way as other systems of the car. In the simplest case, it is a tyre that has a special pressure gauge fixed on the valve.

Tyre with a ring container  is a pneumatic tyre with a container containing compound for sealing a hole. When a tube is punctured and pressure decreases, this compound not only seals a hole, but regains the pressure in it by vaporization