• Provided that operating, transportation and storage regulations are observed the company guarantees:
  • Advices, which will, no doubt, be useful for drivers and help to extend tyre performance life.
  • Tyre marking
  • By their construction tyres can be bias and radial
  • TYRE is rubber or steel (on carts) ring, case on wheel rim. Automobile tyre is an elastic case which contacts the road and cushions impacts and absorbs road bumping.

Tyre design

According to their design tyres are divided into bias and radial.

  • In bias tyres carcass ply cords and breaker cords are laid as alternate angle of 45° - 60° to the centre line of the tread; such arrangement of carcass and breaker cords is called diagonal (bias);
  • Angle of cords in all carcass plies in the centre line of the tread of the radial tyres is about zero, i.e. cords of the adjacent plies are parallel or crossed at low angle; such cords arrangement is called meridional or radial; the breaker cords in adjacent plies of these tyres intersect each other and the cords of contacting carcass ply, i.e. they are diagonally arranged.


There are three types of radial tyres:

  • With steel cord in carcass and breaker (all steel);
  • With cord from textile fibers in carcass and with steel cord in breaker (combined);
  • With cord from synthetic fibers in carcass and breaker (textile).

Tyre construction


конструкция шин


  1. Carcass - strength part of a pneumatic tyre case which consists of one or several plies of rubberized cord fixed on bead rings.
  2. Breaker/belt - inner part of a pneumatic tyre case which consists of rubberized plies of steel or textile cord and located between tread and carcass, designated for load impact softening while driving.
  3. Tread - outer rubber part of a pneumatic tyre case with molded pattern, which provides adhesion with road and prevents carcass damage.
  4. Cap ply (breaker/belt ply) - protective ply located between steel breaker and tread, provides breaker protection from mechanical damages and prevents rubber separation.
  5. Bead - hard part of a pneumatic tyre  which provides its fixing on a wheel rim.
  6. Side wall - outer rubber part of a tyre  which protects carcass from  external side damages.

Characteristics of tyre parts

  • tyre - toroid-shape envelope of pneumatic tyre which directly gets loading while car driving and ensures traction of a tyre with road;
  • Tube - hermetic toroid-shape elastic tube filled with gas or air;
  • Tube valve or tubeless tyres - back-flow air valve designed for air filling, retaining and releasing and for control of internal pressure in tyre;
  • Flap - shaped elastic rubber ring between beads of a tyre, tube and rim. Flap is used in tube tyres for trucks in order to protect tubes from damages.